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World History Final Exam

World History Final Exam

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World History since 1500 Final Exam for Lindenwood University; Professor Schrum

Items (66)

  • The Iraq War

    US/Great Britain expel Saddam Hussein (War on Terrorism)

  • September 11th

    Terrorist attack by Al Queda on World Trade Center; Twin Towers; Two planes, President George W. Busch; sparked war in Iraq

  • Department of Homeland Security

    Proposal by President Busch in 2002; consolidate 22 federal agencies and about 170,000 employees; after 9/11, this was established a part of the cabinet with the goal to secure America

  • terrorism

    acts of violence designed to promote a specific ideology or agenda by creating panic among an enemy population, New fear; the use of violence by groups against civilians to achieve a political goal

  • AIDS

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; often fatal disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles

  • The European Union

    Economic/political union between 27 member countries; developed a single market through a standardized system of laws which apply in all member states; ensures free movement of people, goods, services, and capital; maintains common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development

  • the euro

    in 1999 was adopted as the official currency of the European Union

  • Schengen Agreement

    Treaty signed in 1989 for the removal of systematic border controls by participating countries. Switzerland, Norway, and Denmark are not members.

  • World Trade Organization (WTO)

    Administers the rules governing trade between its 144 members. Helps producers, importers, and exporters conduct their business and ensure that trade flows smoothly

  • Asian Tigers

    Collective name for South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore-nations that became economic powers in the 1970s and 1980s

  • Four Little Tigers

    Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan each had huge boosts in economy during the late 20th century; benefited from cheap labor; copied the earlier success in manufacturing electronics by China/Japan

  • globalization

    actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope

  • Mikhail Gorbachev

    Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe

  • Revolutions of 1989

    Collapse of communism, revolutions which overthrew Soviet-style communist states in the Eastern-Bloc. People start to rebel against Gorbachev and his liberal reforms. Bloodless revolution

  • Velvet Revolution

    Bloodless revolution in Czechoslovakia; overthrew the communist government; started in 1989 with a peaceful student demonstration

  • Solidarity

    also the principal of "friendship" or "social charity"; manifested first in the distribution of goods and the remuneration of work

  • Kwame Nkrumah

    African nationalist responsible for forming the Convention Peoples Party in Ghana; leader of the first black African state to independence (1957)

  • Tienanmen Square

    1989; students were fired on by tanks while leading peaceful demonstrations for their personal freedom and democracy

  • Deng Xiaoping

    Communist party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong (1904-1997) Ruled from 1978 to 1997

  • The Great Leap Forward

    1958; Zedong launched a program; he urged people to make a superhuman effort to increase farm and industrial output and created communes; Rural communes set up "backyard" industries to produce steel; this program failed b/c "backyards" produced low-quality, communes had slow food output, bad weather, and a famine.

  • The Cultural Revolution

    1966, Zedong launches another program; his goal was to purge bourgeois and urged young people experience revolution; convulsed China, schools and factories closed, economy slowed, civil war threatened, so Mao had the army to restore order

  • apartheid

    A South African policy of complete legal separation of the races, including the banning of all social contacts between blacks and whites.

  • Nelson Mandela

    Leader of African National Congress. Early 1990 South African govt retreated from traditional policies. Legalized chief black party in the nation (ANC), which had been banned for decades and released this guy from prison. Became first black president of South Africa

  • African National Congress

    A group formed in protest of the policy of Apartheid in South Africa. It was eventually outlawed due to their violent tactics, and Nelson Mandela, one of its leaders, was imprisoned for over thirty years.

  • Mau Mau Rebellion

    the massacre of 1,700 Africans and about 10 European settlers and missionaries by native Kenyan tribes, especially the Kikuyu, who resented British intrusion

  • Frantz Fanon

    Earliest significant theorist of black identity - Justifies black revolution vs. white society on basis of Existentialism and Marxism

  • Year of Africa

    Refers to the winning of independence in 1960 of the 13 former European-African colonies

  • Mohandas Ghandi

    (1869-1948) a lawyer from South Africa, he fought against racial prejudice against Indians, advocated civil disobedience, equal rights, no caste system, led salt march and other protests, assassinated by a Hindu extremist for his beliefs

  • Jawaharlal Nehru

    Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964).

  • Indian National Congress

    A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.

  • Indian Muslim League

    founded in 1906, the league was dedicated to advancing the political interests of Muslims in India

  • Partition of India

    This is the process that led to the creation, on 14 August 1947 and 15 August 1947, respectively, of the sovereign states of Dominion of Pakistan (later Islamic Republic of Pakistan) and Union of India (later Republic of India) upon the granting of independence from the British Empire, marking the end of the British rule of India.

  • war guilt clause

    Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles, which declared Germany and Austria were responsible for starting the war and ordered Germany to pay reparations

  • The Treaty of Versailles

    Refused to allow either defeated German or Communist Russia to participate in peace conference negotiations, forced Germany to sign a war-guilt clause that was used to justify imposing large war reparations payments; changed map of Europe, created league of nations, left legacy of bitterness

  • Treaty of Brest-Litvosk

    Harsh treaty that got Russia out of the war - between Germany and Russia - it cost Russia 33% of its population, 80% of its iron and 90% of its coal. Russia lost Poland, the Baltic states, and the Ukraine, and paid a large war indemnity.

  • Bolsheviks

    1917 Russian revolutionary group (of communists) who seized power in Russia during the October Revolution to found the Soviet Union

  • The Russian Revolutions of 1917

    1. The country was poor, there was a lack of food. 2. People felt that the war was mismanaged, troops didn't have enough supplies. 3. Czar Nicholas II had been a weak leader, going off to fight in WWI when his country needed him and stepped down.

  • Brezhnev Doctrine

    Policy proclaimed in 1968 and declaring that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any Socialist country whenever it determined there was a need.

  • Prague Spring

    In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.

  • The Cuban Missile Crisis

    When Kruchev tried to build nuclear bases in Cuba, the two superpowers were brought to the brink of war. This base was just 90 miles away from Florida and was a threat to the US. In 1962, President Kennedy declared a naval blockade of Cuba. In the end, Kruchev agreed to remove the missiles from Cuba.

  • Bay of Pigs

    (JFK) , In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.

  • Korean War

    (1950-3) A conflict between UN forces (primarily US and S Korea) against North Korea, and later China; Gen. Douglas Macarthur led UN forces and was later replaced by Gen. Ridgeway; Resulted in Korea remaining divided at the 38th parallel.

  • The People's Republic of China

    New government established by Mao after Communists took over mainland China.

  • The Berlin Wall

    A wall constructed between East and West Berlin with guards who fired on any who tried to escape from East Berlin to West Berlin. This wall served as a symbol of the conflict between communist and noncommunist powers.

  • Warsaw Pact

    A treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. , Alliance of communist dictatorships following WWII.

  • NATO

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries

  • The Marshall Plan

    1947, by George Marshall, against "hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos" a massive aid package offered by US they gave food and economic assistance to europe to help countries rebuild

  • containment

    A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances

  • George F. Kennan

    an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of the relations between Russia and the Western powers.

  • Iron Curtain

    A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world., A political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region

  • United Nations

    An international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 50 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.

  • The Holocaust

    12 million victims, 6 million Jewish and 6 million non-Jewish, were killed in the German campaign of racial purging, This took place in Europe between 1993 and 1945. Six million Jews were systematically and brutally murdered by the Nazis and their collaberators. Miliions of non-Jews, including Roma and Sinti(Gypsies), Serbs, political dissidents, people with disabilities, homosexuals and Jehova's Witnesses, were also persecuted by the Nazis.

  • Corrie ten Boom

    Hid Jews in her house, ended up getting quite involved in the underground until she was imprisoned. she never gave up faith in God., The narrator of her own autobiography, she was a Dutch woman who went to prison for subversive activities against the Nazi occupation in Holland.

  • Anne Frank

    Dutch-Jewish girl who, with other Jews, hid from the Nazis from 1942 to 1944; she was found and sent to a concentration camp where she died., 1st published in 1952 Diary of a Young Girl, chronicles her life in Nazi Germany from 1942-1944

  • Rosie the Riveter

    A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.

  • Hiroshima

    City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.

  • D-Day

    (FDR) , June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which "we will accept nothing less than full victory." More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported this invasion, and by day's end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy.

  • Pearl Harbor

    7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.

  • appeasement

    A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler.

  • The Munich Agreement

    Agreement between Germany and Great Britain in which Hitler is given the Sudetenland in return for agreeing not to take any more territory

  • Anschluss

    Hitler's union of Germany with the German-speaking population of Austria; took place in 1938, despite complaints of other European nations.

  • The Nanjing Massacre

    On December 1, 1937 the Japanese imperial army marched here and attacked. The wealthy and the middle class were evacuated, peasants were left behind and the Japanese occupied this place by December 12. Approximately 220,000 were said to have been buried. It is also known as the rape of ____. Chinese woman were used as comfort woman. The war ended in 1945.

  • The Marco Polo Bridge Incident

    Japanese troops in the area claimed Chinese soldiers began shooting them. A Japanese soldier was missing, and as a result, the Japanese troops demanded entry to the nearby Chinese town. The Chinese refused, and the Japanese unsuccessfully attempted to storm the town.

  • Chiquita Banana

    fruit version of carmen and tried to show that the united fruit companies neocolonialism wasnt negative

  • bananas republics

    Central American nations

  • Panama Canal

    (TR) , The United States built this to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build this