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Linguistics Training

Linguistics Training

Last update 

Linguistische Begriffe ect. für die Prüfung.

Items (85)

  • systems of language

    systems of sounds, grammar, and meaning

  • Sentences consist of


  • Clauses consist of


  • Phrases consist of


  • Words consist of


  • Morphemes consist of


  • Clauses constitute


  • Phrases constitute


  • Words constitute


  • Morphemes constitute


  • Phonemes constitute


  • Symbol

    related to its referent

  • index

    a result of something

  • icon

    resembles its referent

  • phonetics

    the study of the sounds of language

  • phonology

    the study of the sounds of language and their pattering

  • morphology

    the study of words and "word-building"

  • semantics

    the study of words and sentence meaning

  • syntax

    the study of the structure of phrases and sentences

  • egressive pulmonic airstream

    pushing air outwards

  • phenomena that function alongside speech

    paralinguistic features

  • ingressive airstream

    sucking air inwards

  • articulatory phonetics

    the study of the way the vocal organs are used to produce speech sounds

  • auditory phonetics

    the study of the way humans percieve speech sounds

  • acoustic phonetics

    the study of the physical properties of speech

  • words can have

    fewer, exactly the same, or more sounds than letters

  • somtimes the number of sounds in a word

    is opaque

  • two letters may represent

    a single sound

  • one letter may represent

    two sounds

  • some letters

    are silent

  • IPA established

    in 1888

  • IPA revised

    in 1989

  • IPA established by

    International Phonetics Association

  • IPA means

    International Phonetic Alphabet

  • the phonation of vowels is always


  • the articulation of vowels does not involve

    any audible obstruction of the airstream

  • lips =

    bilabial or labial

  • teeth =


  • alveolar ridge =


  • hard palate =


  • soft palate =


  • glottis =


  • lips and teeth =


  • Three-Term-Label Classification

    voice, place, manner

  • the active articulator

    is the organ that moves

  • the passive articulator is

    the target of the moving organ

  • plosive =

    explosive release of compressed air, soft palate raised

  • affricate =

    articulators open slowly producing homorganic friction

  • fricative =

    articulators perform a near closure, producing hiss-like friction

  • approximant =

    space beetween articulators is wide enough not to obstruct the airstream

  • lateral =

    centre of the tounge closes, sides lowered: [l]

  • nasal =

    soft palate lowered, oral cavity closed

  • obstruents =

    formed by obstructing outward airflow

  • sonorants =

    produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tracts

  • Initiation =

    Preperation of the vocal cords (voice)

  • Phonation =

    Air passes through the vocal cords (place)

  • Articulation =

    modification of the airstream by the articulators

  • Phoneme =

    smallest unit of speech sound distingushing meaning, notation: / /

  • Phone =

    realization of a phoneme

  • Allophones =

    the different realizations of a phoneme, notation: [ ]

  • It's a phoneme if

    it changes the meaning of a word

  • It's an allophone if

    the meaning of a word stays the same

  • /t/ => [t'] / ___l

    The Phoneme /t/ is realized by ist laterally released allophone [t'] when it occurs before a lateral approximant

  • Assimilation only

    occurs in connected speech

  • Alophonic Process - Assimilation:

    /ɪnpʊt/ => [ɪmpʊt] /n/ => [m] / ___p

  • hashtag # symbolizes

    word boundaries

  • Phonemes are

    minimal contrastive, abstract, and have distinctive properties

  • Allophones are

    phonetic realizations, concrete, and have non-distinctive features

  • the dot . symbolizes

    syllable boundaries

  • Assimilation is progressive if

    /n/ => [m] / p ____

  • Assimilation is regressive if

    /n/ => [m] / ____ p

  • nucleus

    core of the syllable, usually a vowel, obligatory

  • onset

    consonant(s) preceding the nuclear vowel

  • coda

    consonant(s) following the nuclear vowel

  • rhyme

    nucleus + coda

  • Open Syllables

    rhyme consists only of a vowel (nucleus but no coda)

  • Closed Syllables

    rhyme consists of vowel and consonant(s) (nucleus + coda)

  • Heavy Syllables

    rhyme consists of a long vowel, dipthong, or short vowel and consonant(s)

  • Heavy Syllables are

    almost always stressed

  • Light Syllables

    ryhme consists of a short vowel or a syllabic consonant

  • Light Syllables are

    almost always unstressed

  • Syllabic Consonants

    phonemes that can play the role of a vowel and occupy the nuclear position (only nasals and liquids)

  • Sillibification of nouns

    look at the penultimate for stress

  • Sillibification of verb

    look at the final for stress

  • Vowels are described in

    the vowel trapezium