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Items (232)

  • Virus

    not living, no cellular organisms, no independent metabolism --> depends on host cell

  • Viron

    extracellular form in which virus is transmitted

  • Replication cycle of influenza virus

    Binding --> Endocytosis --> Amantadine --> Fusion --> mRNA synthesis --> Replication --> Formation of RNP --> Protein synthesis --> Assemby --> Budding --> Release

  • Giant virus

    very large, infects amoeba, even though has structural & genetic complexity --> still rely on host cell metabolism

  • Phenotypic analysis

    morphology, cell wall, inclusions, capsule, fermentation products, temp. & pH & oxygen requirements, nutritional behavior, habitat

  • Molecular analysis

    GC ratio, DNA Hybridization, Fatty Acid analysis

  • Phylogenic analysis

    evolutionary chronometers eg. 16S rRNA --> evolutionary distance based on genetic sequence in phylogenetic tree

  • Domains

    Bacteria, Eukarya, Archaea

  • Naming

    binomial (Genus, specific species)

  • Archaea vs. Bacteria

    cell wall structure, membrane composition (no peptidoglycan), transcription machinery, translation initiation, sensitivity towards antibiotics, habitat

  • Protozoa

    eukaryotic, no cell wall, mostly motile, chemoorganotroph

  • Fungi

    eukaryotic, cell wall, not motile, chemoorganotroph

  • Subgroups of Fungi

    Yeast --> Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans Molds --> Aspergillus

  • Algae

    eukaryotic, photosynthesis, unicellular or filamentous

  • Normal Flora

    # of MO > # of cells, everywhere except areas never in contact with environment, usually not harmful or even benefitial

  • Benefits of Normal Flora MOs

    produce groth factors (Vitamines), stimulate immune system (trigger antibodies), prevent colonization with pathogens

  • Pathogenicity depends on

    capability to invade host, capability to survive inside host (envade immune systeme), capability to damage host (toxins)

  • Control infections

    Sanitation, Prevention, Treatment

  • Emerging Diseases

    never seen before, no reports, no vaccination, no antibiotics

  • Reemerging Diseases

    bacteria got resistant to antibiotics

  • Photosynthesis

    CO2 + H2O --> O2 + sugar

  • Nitrogen fixation

    Root nodule forming bacteria in symbiosis with legumes, Rhizobium able to convert gaseous nitrogen to combined nitrogen

  • Bioremediation

    MOs consume and break down pollutants (hydrocarbons of petroleum)

  • Agriculture

    bacteria in rumen provide enzyme to digest cellulose (10^10-10^11 bacteria/mL)

  • Decomposition/Biodegradation

    breakdown of complex organic materials to form Carbon --> Sewage treatment facilities

  • Impact on food production

    microbial metabolic activity, food spoilage

  • Biotechnology

    not modified MOs do something for us

  • Genetechnology

    genetically modified MOs do something for us

  • E.coli

    easy to grow, short generation time, DNA/RNA/proteins easily extracted, easily genetically modified, source for expression of proteins (insulin)

  • Capsule- components

    polysaccharides, gycoproteins, amino sugars, poly-D-glutamate

  • Capsule- function

    adherence, resistance, protection, reserve

  • Biofilm

    formed of community slime layer, very loosly packed, other MO can join

  • Glycocalyx

    polysaccharide outside the cell --> coating of molecules

  • Cell wall

    most prokaryotes have one, semirigid, surrounds plasma membrane, gram+/-

  • Cell wall- function

    structural support/shape, protection from osmotic pressure changes, immunological variation

  • Gram +

    big peptidoglycan layer composed of 2 sugar derivates --> up to 25 layers (interpeptide bridges), dark purple staining

  • Gram -

    different layer: outer membrane(LPS, polysaccharide, lipids), thin peptidoglycan (Lys or Dap on 3. position), peiplasmic space, cell membrane, add. outer layer

  • Bacteria without cell wall


  • Bacteria with very rough & rigid cell wall


  • Cytoplasmic membrane

    hydrophilic outside, hydrophobic inside, proteins, sterols (eukaryotes) or hapanoids (bacteria)

  • Cytoplasmic membrane - protein function

    transport, recognition, signal transduction, energy generation,...

  • Cytoplasmic membrane- Linkage

    Bacteria: Ester-linkage, Archaea: Ester-linkage, Ether-Linkage, Isoprenoid, Monolayer

  • Mesosome

    Extention of cell membrane into cytoplasm --> increases surface

  • Flagella

    protein appendage attached by basal body --> locomotion (energy: proton-motive-force)

  • Monotrichous

    1 Flagella at 1 end

  • Lophotrichous

    many Flagella at 1 end

  • Amphitrichous

    many Flagella at both ends

  • Pertichous

    many Flagella all around

  • Endoflagella

    Flagella within sheath between peptidoglycan & outer membrane

  • Chemotaxis

    Motion towards/away chemical stimulus

  • Phototaxis

    Motion towards/away from light

  • Aerotaxis

    Motion towards/away from oxygen

  • Magnetotaxis

    Orientation in a magnetic field

  • Fimbriae

    similar to Flagella but not for Locomotion but for Adherence

  • Pilus

    long Fimbriae --> Conjugation

  • Conjugation

    exchange genetic material via Pilus

  • Inclusion/Granule

    stores nutients, energy, building blocks

  • Gas vesicles

    helps to float in lake and sea --> Cyanobacteria, Phototrophic bacteria, some archaea

  • Periplasmic space

    Space between cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane --> Periplasm with Peptidoglycan

  • Nucleoid

    1 circular chromosome in bacteria without histones

  • Plasmid

    extrachromosomal DNA element, circular, replicate autonomously, extra benefits --> Conjugation

  • Magnetosome

    Magnitites + membrane in chains --> Orientation in magnetic field (Magnetotatic bacteria)

  • Gram staining

    1. Crystal violet (-/+: purple), 2. Iodine solution (-/+: purple), 3. Ethanol (+: purple, -: colorless), 4. Safranin (counterstaining) (+: purple, -: red)

  • Endospores

    Bacterial resting structure, highly resistant, Sterilization can kill them, usually in soil

  • Sporolation

    normal growth, bacterial division, asymetric separation, engulfment, cortex synthesis, coat synthesis, lysis of mother cell, releas of endospore

  • Germination

    activation, germination, outgrowth, water uptake, swelling, start of metabolism, spore coat breaks, cell division

  • Exosporium

    outermost layer in endospore + proteins

  • Spore coat

    withing exosporin + protein in endospore

  • Cortex

    below spore coat in endospore, loosly peptidoglycan

  • Core of Endospore

    inside cortex, 10-30% water of vegetative cell

  • Phototroph

    use light as energy source

  • Chemotrophs

    use chemicals as energy source

  • Chemoorganotroph

    uses organic chemicals as energy source

  • Chemolithotroph

    uses inorganic chemicals as energy source

  • Heterotroph

    organic carbon from food produced

  • Autotroph

    Inorganic carbon from air produced

  • Diazotroph

    nitrogen from air produced

  • Batch culture

    suspension culture in a closed system with defined amount of nutrients

  • Continous liquid culture

    suspension culture in an open system, nutrients continuous replaced, volume constant, maintained in chemostate

  • Solidifying Agar

    from red algae, melts only at 100°C, remains liquid will 42°C, cannot be metabolizes bz most bacteria

  • Colony morphology- Techniques

    Single Streak technique, Spread plate, Pour Plate

  • Colony morphology

    Shape, Size, Surface, Opacity, Color, Consistency

  • Complex medium

    contains undefined nutients for most bacteria, inhibits none, pH: 6.6

  • Minimal medium

    only exact nutrients for wild-type organism, pH: 7.0

  • Selective medium

    promotes growth of desired species, inhibits others

  • Differential medium

    allows distinguish between different bacteria based on observations

  • Peptidoglycan synthesis

    controlled cutting of preexisting peptidoglycan by autolysins, insertion of peptidoglycan precursors, new material added to openings, Transpeptidation (inhibited by Penicilin)

  • Growth

    # microbial cells in population (mass) increases

  • Growth rate

    change in (cell#/cell mass)/time

  • Generation

    interval for formation of 2 cells out of 1

  • Generation time

    doubling time, time for 1 generation to occur

  • Growth curve

    lag, log, stationary, death phase

  • Direct measurement of total cell count

    microscopically, Thoma-counting chamber

  • Direct measurement of viable count

    Pour plate Method, Spread Plate Method, Filtration (coliform bacteria in water)

  • Indirect measurement of cell#

    Photometer (turbidity), metabolic activity, dry weight

  • Osmosis

    high water concentration (low solute conc.) --> low water concentration (high solute conc.)

  • Osmolarity- cell

    solute concentration in cytoplasm > solute concentration in environment

  • Osmotolerance

    capability to maintain high internal solute concentration to keep water, in hypotonic --> reduce osmotic conc. by inclusion bodies, contractile vacuoles, in hypertonic --> accumulation of solutes in cytoplasm

  • Halotolerant

    can grow on salt, does not need it --> Staphylococcus aureus

  • Halophiles

    requires salt for growth --> Vibrio fischeri

  • Extreme halophiles

    requires 15-30% salt (salt lakes, evaporation ponds) --> Cyanobacteria, Halobacterium salinarum

  • Nonhalophiles

    salt = death --> Escherichia coli

  • Psychrophile

    <0-20°, Optimum: 10-15°C, large unsaturated FA in plasma membrane, speacial enzymes --> Green alge, Chlamydomonas nivalis

  • Psychrotrop/-tolerant

    0-25°C, Optimum: 15-30°C --> soil, meat, milk,... food spoilage

  • Mesophile

    10-45°C, Optimum: 30-40°C --> bacteria on and in warm-blooded animals

  • Thermophile

    45->100°C, Optimum: 50-85°C, special proteins, chaperons further assist in folding, histone-like proteins for stabilization of DNA

  • Hyperthermophile

    Optimum: 80°C, can survive boiling water

  • PCR

    Denaturation (94°C), Annealing (54°C), Extension (72°C), 30-40x --> Thermus aquaticus gives taq-polymerase (heat tolerant)

  • Neutrophiles

    6,5-7,5 pH, if lower: death

  • Acidophiles

    2.5-5 pH --> often thermophile

  • Extreme acidophile

    0.5-2.5 pH --> Picrophilus oshimae (0,7pH, lyses at >3pH)

  • Alkalophiles

    9-11 pH --> often halophilic

  • Barotolerant

    can tolerant high pressure --> often psychrophilic

  • Barophile

    requires high pressure --> often psychrophilic

  • Obligate anerobes

    requires O2, aerobic respiration --> Micrococcus luteus

  • Obligate anaerobes

    O2 is toxic, fermentation or anaerobic respiration --> Chlostridium tetani

  • Facultative anaerobes

    O2 not required but better with, respiration or fermentation --> Escherichia coli

  • Microaerophiles

    O2 required but low level, aerobic respiration --> Spirillum voluntans

  • Aerotolerant anaerobes

    O2 not required and not better with, fermentation --> Streptococcus pyogenes

  • Catalase

    H2O2 + H2O2 --> 2 H2O + O2 (obligate aerobe, fac. anaerobe)

  • Peroxidase

    H2O2 + NADH + H+ --> 2 H2O + NAD+ (aerotolerant anaerobes)

  • Superoxidase dismutase

    O2- + O2- + 2 H+ --> H2O2 +O2 (obligate aerobes, fac. anaerobes, aerotolerant anaerobes)

  • Superoxidas reductase

    alternative way of coping with toxic forms of oxygen in anaerobes

  • Sterilization

    all living cells, spores, endospores, viruses are destroyed or removed

  • Disinfection

    all vegetative cells are destroyed, inhibited or removed (not endospores)

  • Antisepsis

    vegetative pathogens are destroyed or inhibited (on body surface)

  • Dry heat

    Incineration, Dry oven

  • Moist heat

    Steam under pressure, boiling water, pasteurization

  • Ionizing radiation

    X-ray, cathode, gamma

  • Non ionizing radiation


  • Incineration

    sterilize and dispose of contaminated bags, dressings, paper cups --> oxidation effect

  • Dry oven

    sterilization at 160°C, 2h --> oxidation effect

  • Steam under pressure


  • Autoclavation

    1.1kg/cm2 pressure, 121°C, 10-15 mins --> kills vegetative cells + endospores

  • Pasteurization

    High-temperature short time (HTST) --> 72°C, 15mins, milk flows constantly through heat exchanger --> lowers total bacterial #

  • Ultra-high-temperature

    140°C, 3 sec. (sterilization)

  • Moist heat- function

    loss of structure&function of macromolecule, protein most stable MM, gentle denaturation with urea --> afterwards reactivation, harsh denaturation with 100°C --> no reactivation

  • Killing endospores- T?

    > 100°C --> autoclavation

  • Ionizing radiation

    X-ray, cathode, gamma --> for pharmaceuticals, medicals, dental supply

  • Nonionizing radiation

    UV --> not for glass, dirt film water but for ceiling of room, water treatment

  • Liquid methods

    phenol, aldehydes, halogenes (iodine, chlorine), alcohols (ethanol, isopropanol), heavy metals (silver, copper, mercury, zinc)

  • Antimicrobial agents

    natural or synthetic chemicals that kill or inhibit growth of MOs

  • ...cidal

    total count same, viable count decreased

  • ...static

    inhibiting only --> total count, viable count same

  • ...lytic

    lyses of cell --> total count, viable count decreases

  • Penicillin

    lytic agent, acts on cell wall synthesis (beta lactam antibiotic) --> inhibits transpeptidation reaction (only gram -)

  • Chemotherapeutics

    chemical compounds that work inside the body

  • Chemotherapeutics- types

    antibiotics (supress microbial groth or kill MO, produced by MO), synthetic agent (same but produced synthetically)

  • Selective toxicity

    by Paul Ehrlich: striking pathogens but not host

  • Alexander Flemming

    Penicillium notatum inhibits growth of Staphylococcus aureus

  • Cellular targets of antibiotics

    cell wall synthesis (penicillin), folic acid metabolism, cytoplasmic membrane structure, RNA elongation, nuclei acid synthesis, DNA directed RNA polymerase, protein synthesis (erythromycin, streptomycin)

  • Synergistic antibiotics

    some combinations of drugs are more effective when taken together

  • Antagonistic antibiotics

    some combinations of drugs become less effective when taken together

  • Antibiotical resistance- mechanism

    impermeable to drugs, modifying target of drug, pumping drug out, altering metabolic pathway, destroying/altering drug

  • Atnitbiotical resistance- aquirement

    inherent resistance, mutations, selection, exchange of genes (transformation, transduction, conjugation)

  • Transformation

    uptake of genes from free DNA

  • Transduction

    uptake of genes via viruses

  • Conjugation

    uptake of genes via pilus

  • Measurement of antimicrobial activity

    disk diffusion or broth dilution

  • Disk diffusion method

    zones of inhibition around disk (gram+ get effected easier)

  • Broth dilution method

    serial dilution with antibiotic

  • Minimum inhibitory concentration

    lowest concentration that completely inhibited bacterial growth

  • Phototroph

    energy from sunlight

  • Chemotroph

    energy from chemicals (oxidation)

  • Chemoorganotroph

    energy from sugar/organic molecules --> CO2 + H2O + energy, aerobic respiration or alternatives --> SLP + ETLP + PMF

  • Chemolithotroph

    energy from inorganic molecules, often aerobic respiration (ETLP), often autotroph

  • Chemolithotroph (hydrogen bacteria)

    H2 --> H2O (Pseudomonas)

  • Chemolithotroph (methanogens)

    H2 --> H2O (methanobacteria)

  • Chemolithotroph (carboxydobacteria)

    CO --> CO2 (Rhodospirillum)

  • Chemolithotroph (nitrifying bacteria)

    NO2 --> NO3 (nitrobacter)

  • Chemolithotroph (iron bacteria)

    Fe++ --> Fe+++ (gallionella, thiobacillus)

  • Autotroph

    produce food self --> carbon obtained from CO2

  • Heterotroph

    rely on other organisms --> obtain reduced carbon from organic compounds (sugars, amino acids)

  • Diazotroph

    fix gaseous nitrogen

  • Aerobic respiration

    oxidize an organic substance completely --> O2 as terminal electron acceptor

  • Emden-Meyerhoff pathway

    =Glycolysis --> Glucose to pyruvate, outcome: 2ATP, 2NADH (via SLP)

  • Transition step

    link between glycolosis & CAC --> Pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA (via Decarboxylation)

  • Citric acid cycle

    Acetyl -CoA to Oxaloacetic acid (2x) --> outcome: 2ATP, 6NADH, 2FADH2 (via SLP)

  • Electron transport chain

    oxidative phosphorylation --> proton gradient across membrane (oxidation), each complex has greater affinity fro e- than previous one (greatest: O2), all pump H+ out, additional pump pumps them via ATP in again --> outcome: 34 ATP (at inner mitochondrial membrane, cytoplasmic membrane (cytoplasm and periplasmic space))

  • Theoretical ATP yield

    Glycolysis: 2ATP + 2NADH (4ATP), Transition: 2NADH (6ATP), CAC: 2ATP, 6NADH (18ATP), 2FADH2 (4ATP) --> 36ATP (38 in bacteria cos no loss due to transport)

  • Incomplete oxidation

    some obligate aerobic metabolize substrate incomplete --> acetic acid bacteria

  • Anaerobic respiration

    using respiration chain without O2 via PMF)

  • SLP

    Substrate-level phosphorylation

  • ETLP

    electron transport level phosphorylation

  • PMF

    proton motive force

  • Alternative electron acceptors

    NO3 --> NO2, N2O, N2 (denitrification, nitrate reductase)

  • Fermentation

    no respiratory chain, no O2, energy yield only via SLP

  • Homo-lactic acid fermentation

    via EMP --> 2lactic acid (2ATP) --> lactobacillus, lactococcus, most streptococci

  • Hetero-lactic acid fermentation

    not via EMP --> lactic acid + ethanol + CO2 (1ATP) --> heterolactic acid bacteria, lactobacillus, leuconostoc

  • Alcoholic fermentation

    via EMP --> 2ethanol + 2CO2 (2ATP) --> Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Entner-Couderoff pathway

    alternative pathway to alcoholic fermentation, used in production of pulque (zymomonas) --> 2 ethanol + 2CO2(1ATP)

  • Other fermentations

    mixed acid fermentation, butanediol fermentation, butyric acid fermentation, propionic acid fermentation (probionibacterium), fermentation with acetone/isopropanol (clostridium), fermentation with acetic acid (escherichia, acetobacter)

  • Crenarchaeota

    archaea (hyperthermophilic, need sulfur --> acidic) --> thermal area: up to 100°C or higher, less than 1-3% NaCl, pH: 0.5-9, nonthermal area, -2-4°C, 3-8% NaCl, pH: 7-9

  • Euryarchaeota

    archaea --> methanogenic bacteria --> strictly anaerobic, diversed morphology/cell wall structure, autotrophic or heterotrophic, swamps and rumen --> used in biodegradation and biogas production

  • Proteobacteria

    gram- --> enterobacteria, pseudomonas, zymomonas, nitrifying bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, rhizobium, bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

  • Enterobacteria

    gram- rods, peritrichious flagella, intestine, chemoorganotrophic, mixed acid fermentation (acetate+ethanol --> e.coli, salmonella, shigella) or butanediol fermentation (2,3butanediol --> enterobacter)

  • Enterobacteria- organisms

    salmonella, shigella, klebsiella, serratia, enterobacter, escherichia

  • E.coli

    from feces (normal flora in large intestine), synthesizes vitamine k, uses up O2 cos fac. anaerobic, special fimbriae attach to s.i. --> exotoxins, chemoorganotroph, not fastigious, on EMB: green metallic sheen, lac+, on McConkey: purple, lac+

  • Pseudomonas

    gram- rods, polar flagella, chemoorganotrophic, in soil/water, (an)aerobic respiration (O2, NO3) --> degradation, bioremediation, denitrification

  • Pseudomonas fluorescens

    produces pigmented siderophore --> glows in UV, special growth medium= pigment production increased

  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    pathogen in immunocompromised ppl, produces 2 soluble pigments (pyoverdin, pyocyanin), highly resistant cos biofilm and uses SDS for metabolism (enzyme sdsA)

  • Zymomonas

    closely related to pseudomonas --> but strictly fermentation via EDP (2 ethanol, 2 CO2, 1ATP) --> pulque, palm sap, beer, spoilage in fruit juices

  • Nitrifying bacteria

    chemolithotroph (reduced nitrogen compound), aerobic respiration, autotroph, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria+nitrite-oxidizing bacteria work together, morphologically diversed, obligate aerobic, in soil/water/sewage --> Nitrosomonas, Nitrococcus

  • Acetic acid bacteria

    gram- rods, aerobic, motile, incomplete oxidation of alcohols/sugars --> organic acid as end product, acidophilic (pH5) --> Acetobacter

  • Acetobacter xylinum

    synthesizes cellulose, tea fungus (kombucha tea)

  • Rizobium

    gram- rods, in soil, able to fix gaseous nitrogen if in symbiosis with leguminoses, oxygen sensitive --> plant produces oxygen-binding protein (leghemoglobin)

  • Rhizobium- nitrogen fixation

    enters root tissue --> triggers differentiation in host --> nodules --> nitrogenase binds to N2 --> reductions by adding H2 --> released ammonia (N2 + *H+ + 8e- + 16ATP --> 2NH3 + H2 +16ADP)

  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    gram- rods, flagella, obligate aerobic, 28-30°C, hunts on other gram- MO cos it relies on periplasmic space to complete life cycle --> many different proteases (digests nutrients in periplasm) --> antibiotic?

  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus- life cycle

    attack phase --> attachment --> penetration --> bdelloplast formation (can dormant) --> growth&development --> maturation --> lysis

  • Staphylococci

    gram+ cocci, grape-like cluster, on skin/mucosa

  • Staphylococcus aureus

    grows well under osmotic pressure, low moisture, causes several diseases

  • Micrococci

    gram+ cocci, strictly aerobic, chemoorganotrophic, pairs/tetrads/irregular clusters (no chains)

  • Mictrococcus luteus

    yellow colonies

  • Micrococcus sedentarius

    smelling feet by produced kerotolysis, formation of methanethiol

  • Lactic acid bacteria

    gram+ rods/cocci, fermention product: lactic acid, aerotolerant --> streptococci, lactobacillus

  • Streptococci

    grow in chains, homofermentation, dental caries

  • Oral cavity

    at birth: sterile, first feeding: S.salivarius, before eruption: aerobic/aerotolerant, after eruption: anaerobic --> lactobacilli, staphylococci, corynebacteria, streptococci (S,mutans!!)

  • Dental caries

    glycoprotein from saliva form film --> S.mutans binds (microcolonies) --> sucrose --> glucan containing biofilm (many bacteria grow in) --> destruction of enamel/dentin --> lactic acid dematerializes tooth --> proteolytic enzymes destroy matrix of enamel

  • Lactobacillus

    gram+ rods, homofermentation (some hetero), rarly pathogenic, in vagina

  • Endospore-forming bacteria

    primary soil organisms, all closely related --> bacillus, clostridium

  • Bacillus

    strictly aerobic/fac. anaerobic, straight/slightly curved gram+ rods, central/terminal endospores, motile, chemoorganotrophic

  • Bacillus- organisms

    Bacillus subtilis, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus (food poisoning), Bacillus thuringiensis

  • Bacillus thuringiensis

    insecicidal bacteria, used to control pests, causes intoxication --> crystalline proprotein produced during sporulation

  • B.thuringiensis- mode of toxin

    dissolving crystal --> endotoxin --> protoxin --> activated toxin --> binds to receptor in gut epithelium --> perforation of membrane --> spore germinate --> bacteria proliferate

  • Clostridium

    can use many different substances for energy generation, in soil/gastrointestinal tract, fermentation with end products: butyric acid, acetone, butanol

  • Clostridium- organisms

    Clostridium pasteurianum, Clostridium acetobutylicium, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium botulinum

  • Cyanobacteria

    very heteogeneous, phototrophic, cell wall resembles gram+, very morphological diversed --> Anabaena

  • Anabaena

    posesses heterocysts --> rounded seemingly empty cells, distributed equally along filament, differentiated vegetative cells, serve for nitrogen fixation, connenction to other cells (mutal exchange)

  • Deinococci

    Thermus, Deinococcus

  • Thermus

    thermophilic, chemoorganotroph

  • Thermus aquaticus

    gram-, modified cell wall, 70°C --> taq-polymerase for PCR

  • Deinococcus

    Deinococcus radiodurans --> gram+, cell wall contains kind of outer membrane+lipidA, carotenoid pigment, polyextremophilic --> radiation, cold, vacuum, oxidative damage, toxic chemics, dryness (recombination, exchange of nucleoid due to diplo/tetracocci arrangement) --> used for bioremediation, could live on mars