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WHS english definitions

Items (157)

  • start-up company

    a company that has just been formed

  • president

    the equivalent of the board of directors in Britain

  • innovation

    a new idea or method

  • crisis

    a situation of danger or difficulty

  • subordinate

    a person with less important position in an organization

  • objective

    something you plan to do or achieve

  • promotion

    when someone is raised to a higher or more important position

  • consultant

    a person who provides expert advice to a company

  • public sector

    the section of the economy under government control

  • strategy

    a plan for achieving success

  • CEO

    the manager with the most authority in the normal, everyday managing of a company

  • to allocate

    to set apart for a particular purpose, for example funds for a new project

  • not-for-profit organization

    an organization whose prime mission is not to make money, e.g. a charity

  • remuneration

    payment for work, especially in the form of a salary and additional benefits such as a car

  • commission

    an amount of money paid to someone according to the value of goods, shares, bonds, etc. they have sold

  • benefits

    advantages that come with a job, apart from pay

  • bonus

    additional money given for better work or increased productivity

  • incentives

    things that encourage people to do something

  • job security

    knowing that there is little risk of losing one's employment

  • labour relations

    interactions between employers and employees, or managers and workers

  • wages

    money paid ( per hour or day or week ) to manual workers

  • unskilled

    without any particular abilities acquired by training

  • job rotation

    regularly switching between different tasks

  • corporate culture

    a company's shared attitudes, beliefs, practices and work relationships

  • salary

    a regular monthly payment not closely related to the actual number of hours worked or the quantity of goods produced

  • motivators

    they include, according to Frederick Herzberg, things such as having a challenging and interesting job, recognition and responsibility, and promotion

  • autonomous

    independent, able to take decisions without consulting someone at the same level or higher in the chain of command

  • to delegate

    to give someone else responsibility for doing something instead of you

  • function

    a specific activity in a company, e.g. production, marketing, finance

  • hierarchy or chain of command

    a system of authority with different levels

  • line authority

    the power to give instructions to people at the level below in the chain of command

  • to report to

    to be responsible to someone to make instructions from them

  • cash balance

    the amount of money a company has in its bank account

  • profit margin

    the difference between the price of a product or service and the cost of producing it

  • inventory

    the amount of stock, including raw materials, supplies and finished goods, that a company has at a particular time

  • self-financing

    using retained earnings rather than borrowing

  • graduate

    person who has completed a university degree course

  • downsizing

    when the managers of a company decide to reduce the number of people working for the company in order to save money or increase profits

  • subsidiary

    a company that is at least half-owned by another company

  • glocalization

    an invented work combining worldwide and regional concerns

  • logic

    thought based on reason and judgement rather than feeling and emotions

  • compromise

    reducing demands or changing opinions in order to agree

  • intuition

    understanding or knowing without consciously using reason

  • connections

    people of influence or importance with whom you are associated

  • to improvise

    to do something when necessary without having already planned it

  • confrontation

    a face-to-face disagreement or argument

  • status

    respect, prestige or importance given to someone

  • collectivist

    believing that the group is more important than the individual

  • to lose face

    to be humiliated or disrespected in public

  • to interrupt

    to cut into someone else's turn to speak

  • eye contact

    looking direct at the people you are talking to

  • critical mass

    the number of people to start and sustain a change

  • leadership ranks

    top levels of management

  • outperforming

    doing better than others, financially

  • profitability

    the ability to make a good return on capital invested in the business

  • return on equity

    the amount of money a company earns on the investments of its shareholders

  • to come across

    to meet or find unexpectedly or by accident

  • compulsory

    required, obligatory, necessary, according to the law

  • quota

    an officially imposed number or quantity

  • voluntary

    done by choice, without legal obligation

  • compliance

    obeying laws

  • dissolution

    the ending or termination of an organization

  • apprentices

    trainees, people still learning their job

  • convert

    someone who changes their beliefs

  • accountability

    being officially responsible for something

  • board of directors

    a group of persons chosen to govern the affairs of a corporation or other large institution

  • competitor

    rival, a person who sells the same services or goods

  • affirmative action

    a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic opportunities

  • warehouse

    a building where large amounts of goods are stored

  • maintanance

    work carried out to keep a building or machine in good condition

  • exported goods

    products sold to other countries

  • real estate

    property: buildings such as offers, houses flats

  • labour

    work done in return for money

  • to delocalize

    to move your factories to another region or country

  • to outsource

    to use other countries to do work your company previously did

  • goods

    merchandise or commodities

  • primary sector

    agriculture, and the extraction of raw material from the earth

  • secondary sector

    the manufacturing industry, in witch raw materials are turned into finished products

  • tertiary sector

    the commercial services that help industry produce and distribute goods to the final consumers, as well as activities such as education, health care, leisure, tourism

  • raw material

    material before being processed or manufactured into a final form

  • bountiful

    providing a large amount of good things

  • headaches

    things that cause difficulties

  • regulation

    official rules or the act of controlling something

  • scrapping

    getting rid of things which are no longer useful or wanted

  • to service

    to examine a machine and repair any faulty parts

  • warranties

    guarantees written promises to repair or replace products that develop a fault

  • mortgage

    a loan to buy property or real estate

  • deposit

    a sum of money placed in a bank

  • capital

    money invested in a bank

  • share or stock

    certificates representing part-ownership of a company

  • bonds

    certificates of debt issued by governments or companies to raise money

  • merger

    when one company combines with another one

  • takeover bid

    when one company offers to buy or acquire another one

  • stockbroking

    buying and selling stocks or shares for clients

  • portfolio

    all investments owned by an individual or organization

  • returns

    the profits made on investments

  • bankrupt

    unable to pay debt or continue to business

  • deregulation

    the ending or relaxing of legal restrictions

  • conglomerate

    a group of companies, operating in different fields, which have joined together

  • interest

    the price paid for borrowing money, paid to lenders

  • credit rating/standing

    the lender's estimation of people's ability to fulfill their financial commitments

  • default

    failure to repay a loan

  • collateralized

    with property or another asset used as guarantee of payment

  • cash flow

    the money generated by an investment

  • to write off

    to cancel a bad debt or worthless asset from an account

  • NGO

    non-government organization pursuing some wider social or political aspect

  • loan

    a fixed sum of money on which interest is paid, lend for a fixed period and usually for a specific purpose

  • to lend

    to give an item/ money to another person for specified time

  • to owe

    to have the obligation to pay back a debt

  • commercial bank

    another word for High-Street bank

  • hedge funds

    private investment funds for wealthy investors that use a wider variety of risky investing strategies than traditional investment funds to achieve higher returns

  • current account

    an account that generally pays little or no interest, but allows the holder to withdraw his or her cash without any restrictions

  • credit card

    a card which guarantees payment for goods and services purchased by the cardholder, who pays back the bank or finance company at a later date

  • cash dispenser

    a computerized machine that allows bank customers to withdraw money, check their balance and so on

  • deposit account

    an account that pays interest, but usually can not be used for paying checks

  • allocation (of resources)

    distribution according a plan

  • to commercialize

    to organize something to make a profiit

  • externalities

    positive or negative consequences (benefits or costs) of economic activities experienced by other people

  • infrastructure

    basic system and services such as transport and power supplies

  • optimal

    the best or most likely to bring success

  • outcome

    the result or effect of an action or situation

  • unfettered

    not limited by any rules or controls

  • consumption

    purchasing and using goods and services

  • balance of payment

    the difference between the funds a country receives and those it pays for all international transactions

  • gross domestic products

    the total market value of all the goods and services produced in a country during a given period

  • demand

    the willingness and ability of consumers to purchase goods or services

  • supply

    the willingness and ability of businesses to offer goods or services for sale

  • to save

    to put money aside to spend in the future

  • equilibrium

    a state of balance, for example when supply is the same as demand

  • deficit

    amount of money that is smaller than is needed

  • surplus

    an excess: a quantity that is larger than is needed

  • fiscal policy

    government actions concerning taxation and public expenditure

  • monetary policy

    government or central bank actions concerning the rate of growth of the money in circulation

  • money supply

    the total amount of money available in an economy at a particular time

  • discrimination

    treating some people in a worse way than you treat other people

  • free enterprise

    an economic system in which anyone can rise capital, from a business and offer goods or services

  • conforming to

    complying with or following (rules etc.)

  • ethical

    according to generally accepted beliefs based on morals

  • custom

    a usual way of behaving

  • proponents

    supporters, people who argue in favour of something

  • stakeholders

    people with a stake in or an interest in or a claim on the firm

  • industrial espionage

    spying on competitors's research and development departments

  • lobbying

    trying to persuade politicians to pass laws favourable to your particular industry

  • whistle blowing

    revealing confidential information to the police or to a newspaper

  • free trade

    imports and exports of goods and services without any government restrictions

  • protectionism

    restricting imports by way of trade barriers such as tariffs and quotas

  • trade barriers

    government policies or regulations that restrict international trade

  • tariff

    a tax charged on import

  • quota

    a maximum quantity of goods of a specific kind that can be imported into a country

  • absolute advantage

    a country's ability to produce goods at a lower cost than any other country

  • comparative advantage

    a country's ability to produce particular goods more efficiently

  • infant industry

    one that is an early stage of development and which can not survive competition from foreign companies

  • strategic impact

    one that is particularly important to a country's economy

  • generic

    a cheaper copy of a product that is not marked with the producer's name

  • trademark

    name of a symbol showing that a product is made by a particular producer and which can not be legally uses by anyone else

  • copyright

    the legal right to control the production and selling of a book, play, film, photograph, piece of music etc.

  • to subsidize

    to pay part of the cost of something