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Unit 3 (Part 2)

Unit 3 (Part 2)

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Items (24)

  • impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).

    aphasia

  • controls language expression - an area, usually in the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.

    Broca's area

  • controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobes.

    Wernicke's area

  • the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience.

    plasticity

  • the formation of new neurons

    neurogenesis

  • the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.

    corpus callosum

  • a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum connecting them).

    split brain

  • our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

    consciousness

  • the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).

    cognitive neuroscience

  • the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.

    dual processing

  • the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.

    behavior genetics

  • every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.

    environment

  • threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.

    chromosomes

  • a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

    DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

  • the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.

    genes

  • the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes.

    genome

  • twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.

    identical twins

  • twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer that brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.

    fraternal twins

  • the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. This may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.

    heritablity

  • the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity).

    interaction

  • the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and functions of genes.

    molecular genetics

  • the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.

    evolutionary psychology

  • the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

    natural selection

  • a random error in gene replication that leads to a change.

    mutation