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Unit 4

Unit 4

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Sensation and Perception

Items (43)

  • Absolute threshold

    The weakest amount of a stimulus one can detect.

  • Auditory nerve

    A bundle of axons that carry neural signals about the amplitude and frequency of sound waves to the brain

  • Binocular depth cue

    Cue that helps detect distance based on the use of both eyes.

  • Bottom-up processing

    The act of perceiving individual elements of an object and rearranging them to create a whole.

  • Cochlea

    A fluid-filled spiral tube in the inner ear that contains hair cells, the auditory receptors for hearing.

  • Conductive hearing loss

    A form of hearing loss that occurs when something interferes with the conduction of sound vibrations from the outer and middle ear to the inner ear.

  • Cones

    Specialized visual receptors located near the center of the retina that detect fine detail and play a key role in daylight vision and color vision

  • Depth perception

    Perception that involves interpreting visual cues in order to determine the distance of an object.

  • Difference threshold

    The minimum amount of difference that can be detected between two stimuli.

  • Eardrum

    A tight membrane that vibrates in response to sound waves.

  • Feature analysis

    Process of attending to specific elements and arranging them into a more complex form.

  • Figure and ground

    A perceptual organization principle that involves the ability to perceive objects as distinct from their surroundings

  • Frequency theory

    A theory of hearing that states that the basilar membrane vibrates at the same frequency of the sound wave.

  • Frequency

    The number of wavelengths or cycles that pass at a given time.

  • Grouping

    A perceptual organization principle that involves the tendency for individuals to organize information into specific ways.

  • Illusion

    False perception of reality caused by a tendency to misinterpret stimuli.

  • Inattentional blindness

    Inability to see visible objects in plain sight due to attention being focused elsewhere.

  • Iris

    The colored portion of the eye that controls the size and diameter of the pupil.

  • Lens

    Flexible, transparent eye structure behind the iris that changes shape to help focus light rays or an image on the retina.

  • Monocular depth cue

    Cue that helps detect distance based on the use of either eye.

  • Opponent-process theory

    A theory that states color vision results from activity in retina receptors making opposing responses to three pairs of colors

  • Optic chiasm

    The point at which the axons from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain

  • Perception

    Psychological process by which organisms select, organize, and interpret sensations.

  • Perceptual constancy

    Visual phenomenon that represents the ability to experience a stable perception as sensory input changes.

  • Perceptual set

    Mental predisposition that influences perceptual expectations.

  • Phi phenomenon

    Illusion of movement created when two or more visual stimuli are presented in rapid succession.

  • Pitch

    The perceived loudness or highness of a tone; depends on the frequency of a sound wave.

  • Place theory

    A theory of hearing that states that the perception of pitch depends on the place where the basilar membrane is stimulated

  • Pupil

    The adjustable opening in the center of the eye that helps control the amount of light entering the eye.

  • Retina

    The light-sensitive neural tissue lining the inner back surface of the eye that processes images and sends visual information to the brain.

  • Rods

    Specialized visual receptors in the retina that detect black, white, and gray and play a key role in night vision and peripheral vision.

  • Selective attention

    Ability to focus attention on a specific stimulus.

  • Sensation

    The stimulation of the senses and the transmission of sensory information to the central nervous system

  • Senses

    Any of the faculties by which animals and humans perceive stimuli.

  • Sensorineural hearing loss

    A form of hearing loss caused by damage to the auditory nerve or to the hair cells in the inner ear; also referred to as nerve deafness

  • Sensory adaptation

    The automatic process in which an organism becomes more sensitive to new stimuli and less sensitive to constant stimuli.

  • Sensory receptors

    Nerve cells located in the sensory organs that react directly to light, sound, or other stimuli by sending impulses to other neurons and to the central nervous system.

  • Signal detection theory

    A theory that predicts how and when one detects the presence of weak stimuli amidst background noise

  • Timbre

    The qualities of a sound that allows one to distinguish between sounds of the same pitch and loudness.

  • Top-down processing

    The act of perceiving an object as a whole before perceiving individual elements.

  • Transduction

    The process of converting physical energy into a coded neural activity that the nervous system can process

  • Trichromatic theory

    A theory of color vision that states the retina has three different color receptors that assist in perception of color variation.

  • Weber’s law

    The principle that the difference threshold, or the just noticeable difference, is a constant proportion of the original size of the stimulus value.