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Japanese Grammar & Conjunctions (Basic)

Japanese Grammar & Conjunctions (Basic)

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Knowledge of kana and english grammatic terminology is required. Intended as a third-party supplement to Tae Kim's Guide to Japanese Grammar.(http://www.guidetojapanese.org/learn/grammar) Notes: [Implied Meaning] ~Weak expression~ {Emphasised expression} -- X = Remove X + X = Concatenate (Attach) X

Items (74)

  • X {is} Y

    X が Y

  • X {is also} Y

    X も Y

  • Neutrally & Politely assert an expression

    ...です

  • Strongly asserting an expr.

    ...だ

  • Not *noun*

    *noun* + じゃない

  • Was *noun*

    *noun* + だった

  • Was not *noun*

    *noun* + じゃなかった

  • A noun that can be an adjective. Usually only in Kanji, except きれい and 嫌い.

    な-adjective

  • Describing a noun using a な-adj.

    *な-adj.* + な + *noun*

  • not *な-adj.*

    *な-adj.* + じゃない + *noun*

  • was *な-adj.*

    *な-adj.* + だった + *noun*

  • was not *な-adj.*

    *な-adj.* + じゃなかった + *noun*

  • *noun* is/was/not/wasn't *な-adj.*

    *noun* + は/ が + *な-adj.* (+ だった/じゃない/じゃなかった)

  • An adjective (with an implied verb "to be")

    い-adjective

  • Describing a noun using a い-adj.

    *い-adj.* + *noun*

  • not *い-adj.*

    *い-adj.* -- い + くない + *noun*

  • was *い-adj.*

    *い-adj.* -- い + かった + *noun*

  • was not *い-adj.*

    *い-adj.* -- い + くなかった + *noun*

  • *noun* is/was/not/wasn't *い-adj.*

    *noun* + は/ が + *い-adj.* (-- い + かった/くない/なかった)

  • Exception: not 良「い/よ」い

    良「よ」くない

  • Exception: was 良「い/よ」い

    良「よ」かった

  • Exception: wasn't 良「い/よ」い

    良「よ」くなかった

  • Exception: not かっこいい

    かっこよくない

  • Exception: was かっこいい

    かっこよかった

  • Exception: wasn't かっこいい

    かっこよくなかった

  • Most verbs that end with the sound "iru" or "eru" are

    る- verbs

  • All verbs that doesn't end with "iru" or "eru" are

    う- verbs

  • Negative る- verbs

    replace last kana with ない

  • Past る- verbs

    replace last kana with た

  • Negative う- verbs ending with う

    --う+ わない

  • Negative う- verbs not ending with う

    change last vowel to "a" sound + ない

  • Exception: Negative of ある

    ない

  • Exception: Negative of する

    しない

  • Exception: Negative of 来「く」る

    来「こ」ない

  • Past う- verbs ending with す

    replace last kana with し+ た

  • Past う- verbs ending with く

    replace last kana with い+ た

  • Past う- verbs ending with ぐ

    replace last kana with い+ だ

  • Past う- verbs ending with む

    replace last kana with ん+ だ

  • Past う- verbs ending with ぶ

    replace last kana with ん+ だ

  • Past う- verbs ending with ぬ

    replace last kana with ん+ だ

  • Past う- verbs ending with る

    replace last kana with った

  • Past う- verbs ending with う

    replace last kana with った

  • Past う- verbs ending with つ

    replace last kana with った

  • Exception: Past of する

    した

  • Exception: Past of 来「く」る

    来「き」た

  • Exception: Past of 行「い」く

    行「い」った

  • Negative-Past Verbs

    change to negative --い + かった

  • Do the act of Y upon/unto X

    X をY

  • Do the act of Y to achieve X as a metaphorical/physical target

    X にY

  • Do the act of Y {on the way} towards X

    X へY

  • Do the act of Y at/by/from/via/[because] X

    X でY

  • Regarding X, do the act of Y to achieve/go to X

    X にはY

  • Regarding X, do the act of Y towards X

    XへはY

  • Regarding X, do the act of Y at/by/from/via/[because] X

    X ではY

  • X and Y / do the act of Y With X

    X とY

  • X and Y and etc…

    X や Y

  • X and Y and other stuff.. (informal)

    X とか Y

  • Y of X / X's Y

    X の Y

  • As for things of / things that are X, (they are) Y.

    X のは Y

  • Because it is X (neg./past noun/verb/い-adj)

    X の / のだ / んだ。

  • Is (it because) X (neg./past noun/verb/い-adj) ?

    X の?

  • Because it is X (plain noun/な-adj)

    X なんだ。

  • Is (it because) X (plain noun/な-adj) ?

    X なの?

  • Isn't (it because) X (neg./past noun/verb/い-adj) ?

    X んじゃない?

  • Isn't (it because) X (plain noun/な-adj) ?

    X なんじゃない?

  • Was (it because) X (neg./past noun/verb/い-adj) ?

    X んだった?

  • Was (it because) X (plain noun/な-adj) ?

    X なんだった?

  • Wasn't (it because) X (neg./past noun/verb/い-adj) ?

    X んじゃなかった?

  • Wasn't (it because) X (plain noun/な-adj) ?

    X なんじゃなかった?

  • Change an い-adj. into an adverb

    Replace last kana with く

  • Change a な-adj. into an adverb

    + に

  • …, isn't it? (Prompting an agreeing reply)

    …ね

  • You know, … (Suggesting a 'by the way' topic)

    …よ

  • You know, …, right? ("by the way" and prompting a reply)

    …よね