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Unit 2

Unit 2

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Items (29)

  • Hindsight Bias

    The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

  • Critical Thinking

    Does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions.

  • Theory

    Using a set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors.

  • Hypothesis

    A testable prediction, often implied by a theory.

  • Operational Definition

    The procedures (operations) used to define research variables.

  • Replication

    Repeating to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.

  • Case Study

    One person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

  • Survey

    Ascertains self-reported information of a particular group by questioning a representative sample.

  • Population

    All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.

  • Random Sample

    Fairly represents a population; each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

  • Naturalistic Observation

    Observing behavior in naturally occurring situations without manipulating the situation.

  • Correlation

    A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and predict each other.

  • Correlation Coefficient

    A statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1).

  • Scatterplot

    A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables.

  • Illusory Correlation

    The perception of a relationship where none exists.

  • Experiment

    Manipulates independent variables to observe the effect on dependent variables.

  • Random Assignment

    Assigning participants by chance, minimizing preexisting differences.

  • Double-Blind Procedure

    Both the participants and staff blind to treatment and placebo groups; drug-evaluation studies.

  • Placebo Effect

    Experimental results caused by expectations alone; inert substance or condition.

  • Experimental Group

    Group that is exposed to the treatment/independent variable.

  • Control Group

    Group that is not exposed to the treatment; serves as a comparison.

  • Independent Variable

    The experimental factor that is manipulated whose effect is being studied.

  • Confounding Variable

    A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.

  • Dependent Variable

    The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response.

  • Standard Deviation

    A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

  • Normal Curve

    A symmetrical, bell-shape; most scores fall near the mean and fewer near the extremes.

  • Statistical Significance

    A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.

  • Informed Consent

    Research participants told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.

  • Debriefing

    The post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.