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Unit III

Unit III

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Items (37)

  • electroencephalogram (EEG)

    amplified recording of electrical brain waves; measured by electrodes

  • CT (computed tomography) scan

    combined X-ray photographs into brain slice; CAT scan

  • PET (positron emission tomography) scan

    detects radioactive glucose when brain performs specific task

  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

    magnetic fields and radio waves produce CGI of soft tissue; brain anatomy.

  • fMRI (functional MRI)

    revealing brain activity through blood flow with successive MRI scans.

  • brainstem

    old, central core of brain; survival functions; begins at spinal cord swell

  • medulla

    the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.

  • reticular formation

    a nerve network in the brainstem; controls arousal.

  • thalamus

    brain's sensory switchboard, top of brainstem

  • cerebellum

    "little brain" at rear brainstem; process sensory input and coordinate movement balance.

  • limbic system

    (hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus) below cerebral cortex; emotions and drives.

  • amygdala

    two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system for emotion.

  • hypothalamus

    "below" thalamus; maintenance activities; pitutiary gland; emotion and reward.

  • cerebral cortex

    fabric covering cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control center.

  • glial cells (glia)

    cells in the nervous system; support, nourish, and protect neurons.

  • frontal lobes

    in cerebral cortex; behind the forehead; speaking, muscle movements, judgement

  • parietal lobes

    in cerebral cortex; top/rear of head; receives sensory input for touch and body position.

  • occipital lobes

    in cerebral cortex; back of head; visual input.

  • temporal lobes

    in cerebral cortex; above ears; auditory input from opposite ear

  • motor cortex

    rear of the frontal lobes; controls voluntary movements.

  • sensory cortex

    front of the parietal lobes; registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.

  • association areas

    in cerebral cortex; higher mental functions, not motor or sensory

  • aphasia

    impairment of language; damage to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).

  • Broca's area

    controls language expression; left frontal lobe, speech muscles.

  • Wernicke's area

    controls language reception; left temporal lobe, language expression and comprehension

  • plasticity

    the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood

  • neurogenesis

    the formation of new neurons

  • corpus callosum

    the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres

  • split brain

    Cuts corpus callosum, isolates hemispheres

  • consciousness

    our awareness of ourselves and our environment

  • cognitive neuroscience

    study of the brain activity linked with cognition

  • dual processing

    information is simultaneously processed onconscious and unconscious tracks.

  • behavior genetics

    relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.

  • heritability

    the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes

  • interaction

    one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity).

  • molecular genetics

    the sub-field of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.

  • evolutionary psychology

    the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using natural selection.