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Construction Safety

Construction Safety

Last update 

Items (80)

  • What is safety

    The act of keeping oneself and others safe (Miram Webster)

  • Three Fundamentals of safety

    Recognition, avoidance, and prevention

  • Recognition

    Of unsafe work conditions, hazards, practices, improve our ability to see and understand potential causes of accidents

  • Avoidance

    The act of keeping away from something, dangerous heights, holes, and openings

  • Prevention

    Anticipate potential dangers

  • Planning categories of Safety Programs

    Policy, management controls and duties, job control, minimum requirements, job planning, instruction and education, inspection requirements

  • Implementation categories of Safety Programs

    Publicize goals, management performance, job control, minimum standards, instruction and training, jobsite inspections, records and reporting requirements

  • What is an accident

    The unintentional interruption of an orderly process

  • What causes accidents

    Carelessness, lack of awareness danger, hazardous conditions

  • injury?

    Bodily harm, damage to the bodily structure that prohibits the individual from performing his or her usual tasks normally

  • What causes injuries

    Accidents cause injuries

  • In reality we have little or no control over the end result of an accident


  • Whenever there is a hazardous condition, carelessness or lack of awareness, there is potential to have an accident


  • 4 main types of involovement

    education, vigilance, communication, and cooperation

  • AGC's safety motto

    safety pays

  • Primary purpose of any safety program

    Is to prevent accidents, which prevents injuries

  • Why is safety important

    Because of the cost of an accident

  • Type of accident costs

    Cost in dollars, cost of human suffering

  • Components of Cost in dollars

    Direct and indirect costs to employers, and costs to employee

  • Direct costs to employers

    Worker's compensation insurance, job costs such as damage to equipment, work in place, and material

  • Indirect costs to employers (4 to 10 times the direct costs)

    Loss of productivity

  • Components of Cost of Human suffering

    Psychiatric therapy/counseling, death, permanent life-long injuries, and loss of pleasures

  • Accidents often result in injuries


  • Accidents are always expensive


  • The best way to prevent injuries is to prevent accidents


  • What is worker's compensation?

    Workers compensation is insurance required by law that all employers must provide coverage for all their employees, which includes medical benefits, salary stipend, and all supplemental related expenses

  • Organization of worker's compensation

    on top is the federal government, followed by general requirements with no administration

  • State governments

    have their own individual state laws

  • NCCI

    National Council on Compensation Insurance, they have no administration, are a private consulting association, gathers statistics and recommends rates

  • premiums

    are the total payments, established for one or two year periods and adjusted by the end of the year

  • premium rates

    rates for individual workers

  • premium rates determination

    by industry accident records, craft or trade and type of work, and employer accident record

  • Employee accident record

    used as a multiplying factor, consists of number of hours worked and type of accidents

  • Who regulates and administers worker's compensation laws and insurance?

    State governments

  • Who pays the premium?

    employers pay

  • How is the premium cost determined?

    industry accident record, craft and type of work, employer accident record

  • What is an injury?

    bodily harm or damage to the bodily structure

  • What is an occupational disease?

    a disease caused by environmental factors, the exposure to which is peculiar to a particular process, trade, or occupation, and which an employee is not ordinarily subjected or exposed outside of or away from such employment

  • What is employment?

    all work or activity performed in carrying out an assignment or request of the employer, including incidental and related activities not specifically covered by the assignment or request, this also includes any voluntary work or activity undertaken while on duty with the intent of benefiting the employer and any activities undertaken while on duty with the consent or approval of the employer

  • What are the 5 primary work injury classifications?

    death, permanent total, disability, permanent partial disability, temporary total disability, and medical treatment injury

  • What are 3 measures of injury experience?

    disabling injury frequency rate, disabling injury severity rate, and average days charged per disabling injury

  • disabling injury frequency rate

    based on total number of deaths, permanent partial, and temporary total disabilities which occur during the period covered by the rate

  • disabling injury severity rate

    based on the total scheduled charges for all deaths, permanent total and permanent partial disabilities, and the total days of disability from all temporary total injuries which occur during the period, expressed in terms of 200,000 hour units

  • average days charged per disabling injury

    the relationship between the total days charged calculated by dividing total days charged by total disabling injuries

  • EMR

    experience modification factor, is an industry wide factor which reflects a companies safety and risk, greater than 1.0 is a bad EMR, less than 1.0 is a good EMR, viewed as a burden added to overall bid costs covered in overhead costs

  • payroll

    reviewed by insurance carrier and audited by state administration

  • insurance coverage methods

    private carriers, self insurance

  • private carriers

    ING, prudential, etc.

  • self insurance

    typically for larger companies, company fund that goes untouched requires paying someone to oversee it

  • work injury classifications

    medical treatment or first aid injury,

  • work injury rates

    are based on two factors, factor 1 is 200,000 man hours worked, days charged or days absent

  • DIFR

    disabling injury frequency rate, is how often accidents or incidents occur

  • origin of sate safety regulations

    began in 1940's

  • Construction Safety Act

    made in 1969, applied to all federal government funded work, penalties accessed can cancel contracts if working unsafely, responsible for all costs to bring on a new contract, black listed from bidding federal work for 3 years, appeals only made by U.S. district court of appeals, never really enforced too much grey area

  • Occupational Safety & Health Act

    also known as the William Steiger Act, adopted the previous standards from the 1969 Construction Safety Act, this new act included all industries except government agencies

  • Layers of OSHA

    US Department of Labor


    national institute of occupational safety and health

  • CSHO

    compliance of safety and health officer

  • OSHA's focus four

    falls, struck by, caught in or between, and electrical shock

  • Falls

    33 percent of industry injuries

  • Struck by

    22 percent of industry injuries

  • Caught in or between

    18 percent industry injuries

  • Electrical shock

    17 percent industry injuries

  • what percentage of construction deaths are caused by the four focal points?

    90 percent

  • Inspections are focused on

    reviews of safety programs, fall protection, trenching, machine guarding, and electrical

  • safety program objects

    primary focus on these objectives to prevent accidents, secondary objectives are reducing injuries, lower costs, increase productivity, maintain OSHA compliance

  • Priority of control for safety

    in order of importance 1) engineering controls 2) work practice controls and 3) personal protective controls

  • An OSHA inspection can not inspect a job site without given consent or a search warrant


  • What does OSHA do?

    encourages employers and employees to reduce workplace hazards and implement new or improve existing safety and health programs, develops and enforces mandatory job safety and health standards, maintains a reporting and record keeping system to monitor job related injuries and illness, provides assistance, training and other support programs to help employers and workers

  • Who is covered by OSHA?

    most private sector employees, coverage is provided directly by federal OSHA or through an OSHA approved state program, does not covered self employed or immediate members of farm families that do not employ outside workers

  • priorities for jobsite inspection selection

    imminent danger, death or catastrophe on job, employee complaint, scheduled program inspections, random inspections, and abatement follow-up inspections

  • catastrophe on a job

    one or more workers that requires hospitalization

  • activities the CSHO do prior to inspection

    research the inspection history of a work site using various data sources, review the operations and processes in use and the standards most likely to apply, gather appropriate personal protective equipment and testing instruments to measure

  • most inspections are conducted without advanced notice


  • activities the CSHO do during the inspection process

    displays official credentials, conducts opening conference, conducts walk around inspection, and conducts closing conference

  • credential requirements

    includes both a photograph and serial number of CHSO

  • walk around inspection requirements

    by law the CSHO has to allow one one representative of management, and one representative of primary labor

  • closing conference summary

    CSHO explains what they saw and writes a report, may suggest possible courses of action, and will discuss consultation and employee rights

  • area directory duty

    determines whether a citation will be issued based upon the evidence, determines whether a penalty will be levied or assessed and the level of the penalty, OSHA may or may not issue citations

  • What happens after an OSHA inspection?

    employer must post a copy of each citation where the violation occurs, must be there for at least 3 days or until the problem is fixed