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Brein Chapter 1+2 Flash cards

Brein Chapter 1+2 Flash cards

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Items (88)

  • Condition in which a person is alive but unable to communicate or to function independently at even the most basic level.

    persistent vegetative state

  • Individual characteristics that can be seen or measured.

    phenotype

  • Body plan in which organs or parts present on both sides of the body are mirror images in appearance. For example, the hands are bilaterally symmetrical, whereas the heart is not.

    bilateral symmetry

  • Division into a number of parts that are similar; refers to the idea that many animals, including vertebrates, are composed of similarly organized body segments.

    segmentation

  • Part of the central nervous system encased within the vertebrae (spinal column) that provides most of the connections between the brain and the rest of the body.

    spinal cord

  • Idea that selection for improved brain cooling through increased blood circulation in the brains of early hominids enabled the brain to grow larger.

    radiator hypothesis

  • Darwins theory for explaining how new species evolve and how existing species change over time. Differential success in the reproduction of different characteristics (phenotypes) results from the interaction of organisms with their environment.

    natural selection

  • Neurosurgery in which electrodes implanted in the brain stimulate a targeted area with a low-voltage electrical current to facilitate behavior.

    deep brain stimulation

  • Differences in gene expression related to environment and experience.

    epigenetics

  • Quandary of explaining how a nonmaterial mind and a material body interact.

    mind body problem

  • Learned behaviors that are passed on from one generation to the next through teaching and experience.

    culture

  • Jerisons quantitative measure of brain size obtained from the ratio of actual brain size to expected brain size, according to the principle of proper mass, for an animal of a particular body size.

    encephalization quotient

  • Hypothesis that the movements we make and the movements we perceive in others are central to communication with others.

    embodied language

  • Specialized nerve cell engaged in information processing.

    neuron

  • Simple nervous system that has no brain or spinal cord but consists of neurons that receive sensory information and connect directly to other neurons that move muscles.

    nerve net

  • Proposed nonmaterial entity responsible for intelligence, attention, awareness, and consciousness.

    mind

  • Process in which maturation is delayed and so an adult retains infant characteristics; idea derived from the observation that newly evolved species resemble the young of their common ancestors.

    neoteny

  • Phylogenetic tree that branches repeatedly, suggesting a taxonomy of organisms based on the time sequence in which evolutionary branches arise.

    cladogram

  • Condition in which a person can display some rudimentary behaviors, such as smiling or uttering a few words, but is otherwise not conscious.

    minimally conscious state

  • Particular genetic makeup of an individual.

    genotype

  • Philosophical position that holds that both a nonmaterial mind and a material body contribute to behavior.

    dualism

  • General term referring to primates that walk upright, including all forms of humans, living and extinct.

    hominid

  • Major structure of the brainstem specialized for coordinating and learning skilled movements. In large-brained animals, the cerebellum may also have a role in coordinating other mental processes.

    cerebellum

  • central structure of the brain responsible for most unconscious behavior.

    brainstem

  • Synonym for mind, an entity once proposed to be the source of human behavior.

    psyche

  • Explanation of behavior as a function of the nonmaterial mind.

    mentalism

  • Philosophical position that holds that behavior can be explained as a function of the brain and the rest of the nervous system without explanatory recourse to the mind.

    materialism

  • Consensual experiment directed toward developing a treatment.

    clinical trial

  • Animal that has both a brain and a spinal cord.

    chordate

  • Quandary of explaining how a nonmaterial mind and a material body interact.

    Mind body problem

  • The brain and spinal cord that together mediate behavior.

    CNS

  • Forebearer from which two or more lineages or family groups arise and so is ancestral to both groups.

    common ancestor

  • Major structure of the forebrain that consists of two virtually identical hemispheres (left and right) and is responsible for most conscious behavior.

    cerebrum

  • Wound to the brain that results from a blow to the head.

    traumatic brain injury

  • All the neurons in the body located outside the brain and spinal cord; provides sensory and motor connections to and from the central nervous system.

    peripheral nervous system

  • Behavior that is characteristic of all members of a species.

    species-typical behavior

  • Literally, half a sphere, referring to one side of the cerebrum.

    hemisphere

  • Group of organisms that can interbreed.

    species

  • Collection of nerve cells that function somewhat like a brain.

    ganglia

  • Areas of the nervous system rich in fat-sheathed neural axons that form the connections between brain cells.

    white matter

  • Sudden appearance of neurological symptoms as a result of severely interrupted blood flow.

    stroke

  • Band of white matter containing about 200 million nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres to provide a route for direct communication between them.

    corpus callosum

  • One of a set of 12 nerve pairs that control sensory and motor functions of the head, neck, and internal organs.

    cranial nerve

  • Central part of the brain that contains neural circuits for hearing and seeing as well as orienting movements.

    midbrain

  • An individuals capacity to develop into more than one phenotype.

    phenotypic plasticity

  • Decrease in the activity of a neuron or brain area.

    inhibition

  • Large collection of axons coursing together within the central nervous system.

    tract

  • Roof (area above the ventricle) of the midbrain; its functions are sensory processing, particularly visual and auditory, and the production of orienting movements.

    tectum

  • The bones that form the spinal column.

    vertebrae

  • The between brain that integrates sensory and motor information on its way to the cerebral cortex.

    diencephalon

  • Part of the autonomic nervous system; acts in opposition to the sympathetic division for example, preparing the body to rest and digest by reversing the alarm response or stimulating digestion.

    parasympathetic division

  • Disorder of the motor system correlated with a loss of dopamine in the brain and characterized by tremors, muscular rigidity, and a reduction in voluntary movement.

    Parkinsons disease

  • Movement related to sensory inputs, such as turning the head to see the source of a sound.

    orienting movement

  • Part of the cerebral cortex often generally characterized as performing the brains executive functions, such as decision making; lies anterior to the central sulcus and beneath the frontal bone of the skull.

    frontal lobe

  • The general principle that sensory fibers are located dorsally and motor fibers are located ventrally.

    law of Bell and Magendie

  • Degenerative brain disorder related to aging that first appears as progressive memory loss and later develops into generalized dementia.

    Alzheimers disease

  • Part of the cerebral cortex that functions to direct movements toward a goal or to perform a task, such as grasping an object; lies posterior to the central sulcus and beneath the parietal bone at the top of the skull.

    parietal lobe

  • Diencephalon structure through which information from all sensory systems is integrated and projected into the appropriate region of the neocortex.

    thalamus

  • Large collection of axons coursing together outside the central nervous system.

    nerve

  • Central structures of the brain, including the hindbrain, midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus, that are responsible for most unconscious behavior.

    brainstem

  • Areas of the nervous system composed predominantly of cell bodies and capillary blood vessels that function either to collect and modify information or to support this activity.

    gray matter

  • Part of the autonomic nervous system; arouses the body for action, such as mediating the involuntary fight-or-flight response to alarm by increasing heart rate and blood pressure.

    sympathetic division

  • A groove in brain matter, usually a groove found in the neocortex or cerebellum.

    sulcus

  • One of four cavities in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid that cushions the brain and may play a role in maintaining brain metabolism.

    ventricle

  • Subcortical forebrain nuclei that coordinate voluntary movements of the limbs and body; connected to the thalamus and to the midbrain.

    basal ganglia

  • Conducting toward a central nervous system structure.

    afferent

  • Part of the cerebral cortex where visual processing begins; lies at the back of the brain and beneath the occipital bone.

    occipital lobe

  • Midbrain area in which nuclei and fiber pathways are mixed, producing a netlike appearance; associated with sleep wake behavior and behavioral arousal.

    reticular formation

  • Floor (area below the ventricle) of the midbrain; a collection of nuclei with movement-related, species-specific, and pain-perception functions.

    tegmentum

  • Newest, outer layer (new bark) of the forebrain, composed of about six layers of gray matter; creates our reality.

    neocortex

  • Thin, heavily folded film of nerve tissue composed of neurons that is the outer layer of the forebrain. Also called neocortex.

    cerebral cortex

  • Evolutionarily the oldest part of the brain; contains the pons, medulla, reticular formation, and cerebellum, structures that coordinate and control most voluntary and involuntary movements.

    hindbrain

  • Part of the cerebral cortex that functions in connection with hearing, language, and musical abilities; lies below the lateral fissure, beneath the temporal bone at the side of the skull.

    temporal lobe

  • Three layers of protective tissue dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater that encase the brain and spinal cord.

    meninges

  • Part of the PNS that regulates the functioning of internal organs and glands.

    autonomic nervous system

  • Conducting away from a central nervous system structure.

    efferent

  • Clear solution of sodium chloride and other salts that fills the ventricles inside the brain and circulates around the brain and spinal cord beneath the arachnoid layer in the subarachnoid space.

    cerebrospinal fluid

  • Increase in the activity of a neuron or brain area.

    excitation

  • Map of the neocortex based on the organization, structure, and distribution of the cells.

    cytoarchitectonic map

  • Disorder of the basal ganglia characterized by tics, involuntary vocalizations (including curse words and animal sounds), and odd, involuntary movements of the body, especially of the face and head.

    Tourettes syndrome

  • Disparate forebrain structures lying between the neocortex and the brainstem that form a functional system controlling affective and motivated behaviors and certain forms of memory; includes cingulate cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, among other structures.

    limbic system

  • A small protrusion or bump formed by the folding of the cerebral cortex.

    gyrus

  • Diencephalon structure that contains many nuclei associated with temperature regulation, eating, drinking, and sexual behavior.

    hypothalamus

  • A group of cells forming a cluster that can be identified with special stains to form a functional grouping.

    nucleus

  • Body segment corresponding to a segment of the spinal cord.

    dermatome

  • Evolutionarily the newest part of the brain; coordinates advanced cognitive functions such as thinking, planning, and language; contains the limbic system, basal ganglia, and the neocortex.

    forebrain

  • The nervous systems potential for physical or chemical change that enhances its adaptability to environmental change and its ability to compensate for injury.

    neuroplasticity

  • Part of the PNS that includes the cranial and spinal nerves to and from the muscles, joints, and skin that produce movement, transmit incoming sensory input, and inform the CNS about the position and movement of body parts.

    somatic nervous system