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Persoon Hoorcollege 4+5+6

Persoon Hoorcollege 4+5+6

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Items (58)

  • learning characteristics of parents

    filial imprinting

  • learning characteristics of mates

    sexual imprinting

  • reward spontaneous actions that resemble desired behavior and then continue rewarding only behaviors taht are increasingly similar to desired response

    shaping

  • cognition that you are aware of and can describe in words

    explicit cognition

  • knowledge that works outside of awareness and may be difficult to describe in words

    implicit cognition

  • childs knowledge, representations, and ways of interacting with the world

    scheme

  • relates schemes and experience in the world

    adaption

  • interprets new experiences in terms of existing schemes

    assimilation

  • alters schemes in response to new experience

    accomodation

  • assimilation and accomodation working together to foster a better cognitive fit with the environment

    equilibration

  • Birth-2years, Infants learn to distinguish their own bodies and actioins from the external world around them

    Sensorimotor period

  • 2-7 years, children can unse symbols to mentally represent objects, BUT fail to use them to see quasi-logical relations governing phenomena

    Peroperational period

  • 7-12 years, children appöy quasi-logical operations to concrete information, BUT fail to think abstractly/in hypothetical terms

    Concrete operational period

  • 12 years on, children are able to think logical over thing which are not present and about abstract/hypothetical ideas

    Formal operational period

  • use of refleces, no awareness of objects in the world, no ability to integrate information from across senses

    Sensorimotor period, Stage 1 (first month)

  • primary circular reactions, interact with objects using reflex,, produce action, does not have a concept of objecthood

    Sensorimotor period, Stage 2 (1-4 month)

  • secondary circular reactions

    Sensorimotor period, Stage 3 (4-9 month)

  • Integration of secondary schemes

    Sensorimotor period, Stage 4

  • tertiary circular reactions, applies schemes intentionally, shows creaticity, exploration and experimentation; Succeeds an A-Not-B errors

    Sensorimotor period, Stage 5 (12-18 month)

  • flexible use schemes, can represent objects that are out of sight, can manipulate mental representations, begin using language

    Sensorimotor period, Stage 6 (18-24 month)

  • objects move on a conneted path and don't go on and out of existence

    Continuity

  • objects are solid

    solidity

  • when objects make contact, they influence each other

    contact

  • unsupported objects fall

    gravity

  • objects don't rapidly change direction without encountering other forces

    intertia

  • get exposed to objects and notice similarities

    Empiricist view

  • babies have biases to expect certain properties to be definitive of category

    Nativist view

  • Preference before 6 month

    No specific bonds

  • Preference 6-7 months

    specific bonds

  • Preference 8 month old

    separation anxiety

  • positive reactions of infants when caregiver appears

    Greeting reactions

  • the infant uses the caregiver as a base for exploration

    secure base behavior

  • indicates a specific bond, culturally universal, as infants age their display of separation distress changes

    separation distress/ anxiety

  • babies have physical drives like thirst and hunger, positive reinforcement association when caregiver respond to drives

    Learning theory

  • infants want to be proximal to caregiver, focus on evolutionary role of attachement, parents care for child, distinct from dependency

    Ethological theory

  • look to others to see how to react

    Social referencing

  • call attention to something by looking at it, looking back at caregiver, and looing at it again

    joint attention/gaze following

  • Explore when with mother, mot upset when she leaves, avoid/ ignoring mother when she returns, much less concern towards stranger

    Insecure/avoidant attachment (Type A, 20%)

  • Explore when with mother,distressted when she leaves, quite apprehensive towards stranger when alone with her, happy to see mother return

    Secure attachment (Type B, 70%)

  • Less likely to explore overall, most distressed when mother leaves, uncomfortable around strangers, stay close to mother when she returns, may act angry

    Insecure/resistent attachment (Type C, 10%)

  • inconsistent behaviors, insecure and unusually controlling with the parent at the same time

    Disorganized attachment (Type D, less 10%)

  • appear early in develpment, universal in human species

    basic emotions

  • build on and occur developmentally later than basic emotions

    complex emotions

  • Birth-6 month,Joy, Surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, fear

    Primary emotions

  • Emotions that respond to moral violations or that motivate moral behavior

    Moral emotions

  • perceiving what other are feeling may transmit same emotion to observer

    Emotional contagion

  • The brains cell that are active when a monkey picks up a ball are also active when somelse pick it up

    Mirror neurons

  • influences the emotions we experience, when, how

    Emotional regulation

  • change the situation

    Situation modification

  • approach situations that we like and avoid ones that we dislike

    situation selection

  • direct our attention and thoughts towards adverse aspects of situation or towards something else entirely

    Attentional development

  • managing emotional reaction by directly influencung physiological response itself

    Response modification

  • using eexpressions and actions of others to guide one's own actions in unfamiliar or potentially dangerous situation

    Social referencing

  • fearful in new situations

    Inhibited behavior

  • exploratory in new situations

    Uninhibited behavior

  • same environment in not optimal for all people (car wash)

    Goodness of fit

  • tends to increase personal well-being and socially desirable outomes

    Developmental psycholpathology model

  • tends to increase survival and reproductive success

    Evolutionary developmental model