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Persoon Hoorcollege 7+8

Persoon Hoorcollege 7+8

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Items (68)

  • formal mental tools that are required to solve a particular problem/ consider the relations between sets of properties

    operator

  • the understand that changing something about one dimension can compensate for changes to another dimension

    compensation

  • changes can be undone

    reversibility

  • many properties of a thing remain the same, even if its dimensions vary

    identity

  • Children lack the requisite cognitive structures

    Piaget's theory

  • Children have the requisite cognitive structure, but lack other knowledge that the task tests

    memory, attention and encoding

  • Children don't understand which elements of the task are relevant

    they attend to the wrong component of the problem

  • children try to please the experimenter

    they anticipate the "desired" response and try to provide that response

  • Younger children are able to group on basic-level categories, not superordinate categories

    Reason: lack other cognitive abilities

  • Domains of knowledge

    Spatial reasoning, number, reasoning about biology & physics

  • mental representation of the spacial layouts that can be used for navigation

    Cognitive map

  • relative to body (left hand versus right hand)

    egocentric spatial representation

  • relative to environment (north versus south)

    allocentric spatial representation

  • noticing that an object is located directly under or right next to another salient and presumably permanent object

    using beacons

  • involves being able to use distance and direction from salient objects

    Using landmarks

  • noticing that the environment has a particular shape

    geometric cues

  • tendency to imbue inanimate things with psychological motivations, confusing psychological& physical explanations

    animism

  • what properties a child applies to living things reveals the underlying conceptual system he is using

    property attribution method

  • it takes many years for children to figure out what the earth is like, children don't receive direct evidence

    Cosmological beliefs

  • until ca. 42 month, most children believe a ball will fall staight down

    Straight-down rule

  • the next level of a skill, the next step in cognitive development

    Zones of proximal development

  • adults and other children help younger children to progress to the next zone of proximal development

    Scaffolding

  • mentally representing information

    encoding

  • storing encoded information

    storage

  • finding a stored memory

    retrieval

  • memory that may influence behavior but is usually outside of conscious awareness

    Implicit memory

  • memory for information that is consciously recalled and can often be stated verbally, like a new acquaintance’s name or a historical fact

    explicit memory

  • memory that involves knowing how to perform actions or procedures, such as tying your shoes or riding a bike

    procedural memory

  • memory described as knowing that memory, as in knowing that an event has occurred or that a particular fact is true

    declarative memory

  • knowledge of facts about the world, without necessarily remembering how or when the information was learned

    semantic memory

  • memories of specific events that have been experienced at a particular time and place

    episodic memory

  • keeping track of where the new information comes from

    sorce monitoring

  • the format of memory changes so that it is impossible to access the old format

    memory format change hypothesis

  • the late maturation of certain brain structures (e.g. hippocampus) limit early storage

    neural change hypothesis

  • differences in the tyoes of cues that trigger memory retrieval limit later recollection

    cueing hypothesis

  • children become more likely to rehearse past experiences

    rehearsal of past events

  • children get better at orienting their listener

    narrative skill improves

  • children begin to talk about past events with other people

    social sharing

  • understanding more about themselves

    child's sense of self inproves

  • drawing attention to an element of a scene- most primitive, fully developed in infancy

    orienting

  • attentional arousal(based on a prediction)- present in infancy, but develops over time

    alerting

  • doal directing actions and problem solving- develops substantially throughout childhood

    executive functioning

  • the ability to think about one's own mind

    matacognition

  • young children overestimate their knowledge, and do not update their estimates once they receive feedback

    illusion of knowledge

  • by kindergarten children are good at evaluating the knowledge and intention of others, different people have different "expert" knowledge

    evaluating other's knowledge

  • there is only one " right" answer

    absolutism

  • children thought to comprehend and produce stories

    Whole-language approach

  • children are thought rules for combining sounds of letters into words

    phonics approach

  • plays an especially important role in forming and consolidating memories

    hippocampus

  • information comes in through the senses

    sensory memory

  • Sensory memory for visual information

    iconic memory

  • sensory memory for sounds

    echoic memory

  • involves specifically attending to and processing the incoming information from sensory memory

    Working memory/short-term memory

  • linking together separate pieces of information into a larger unit that can be treated as one item in memory

    chunking

  • has a vast capacity and can last a lifetime,organized in terms of its meaning, needs time

    Long-term memory

  • keeping track of where the new information comes from

    source monitoring

  • graph that describes this pattern of recall by plotting how often each list item is successfully recalled against its serial position

    serial position curve

  • recall the first few items well

    primacy effect

  • recall the last few items well

    recency effect

  • failure to spontaneously use strategies to improve memory

    production deficit

  • initial lack of benefit from a new strategy

    utilization deficit

  • awareness of our own memory processes, abilities, and limitations

    metamemory

  • the inability later in life to recall any memories of experiences prior to about 2,5 years of age

    Infantile amnesia

  • cognitive structures that are learned through experience in response to a particular set of stimuli in a specific task and that form a framework for organizing information and responses to that information

    attentional schema

  • defined by several clusters of behaviors that may begin as early as infancy and can continue into adulthood,. The core symptoms are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

  • way of comparing things that on the surface seem quite different in order to see deeper-level similarities between them

    Analogical reasoning

  • ability to develop hypotheses about some aspect of the world and then efficiently test those hypotheses with relevant data

    Scientific reasoning

  • learning disability that typically involves a deficit in phonological processing despite normal intelligence, a good motivation to learn to read, and ample early exposure to environments that normally foster reading

    Dyslexia